Saturday, March 14, 2020

Full Analysis of ACT Grammar Rules Which Are Most Important

Full Analysis of ACT Grammar Rules Which Are Most Important SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips When you are planning your study approach for ACT English, it’s important to know where your time is best spent. Which grammar rules are really the most important to learn? What can help you make the greatest improvement to your score? What kind of questions are on ACT English? ACT English is a passage based test. There are 5 multi-paragraph passages and 75 questions to go with them. The makers of the ACT break the test down into two main sections: Usage and Mechanics questions and Rhetorical Skills. Usage and Mechanics covers questions about punctuation (including internal and end of sentence punctuation and avoiding ambiguity), grammar and usage (including subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, verb formation, pronoun case, comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and idiomatic use), and sentence structure (including modifier placement and relationships between clauses). In the past, these questions have made up about 53% of the questions on the test. The second main category is Rhetorical Skills. These questions will ask about strategy (including understanding when to add or delete information and how to best revise writing for a certain audience), organization (including choosing effective openings, transitions, and conclusions), and style (including choosing correct words, tone, style, and avoiding wordiness). Also grouped with Rhetorical Skills are questions that ask about the author’s goal. These questions test your ability to recognize main ideas and understand what the passage is about, and understanding the scope of the passage. These questions usually compose about 47% of the questions on the test. Since the most recent updates to theACT, the test makers are not sticking as strictly to these percentages, butthey are still good guidelines. What concepts are tested? And why should you care? Almost as predictable as the question types are the grammar and style rules that ACT English will test you on. ACT English heavily favors a few main grammar and style rules, and lightly touches on a multitude of others. Why should this matter to you? This means that especially if you are aiming for a mid-range score, you should focus your studying on the main grammar and style rules that are covered. But if you are aiming for a high score, you should make sure you know all the concepts listed here. Since ACT English has so many questions, even concepts that appear a low percentage of the time will almost definitely be featuredand could affect your score. How did I find this out? I analyzed over 500 ACT English questions from seven official ACT tests that have been given in the past and wrote down the grammar and style concepts tested in each. Usually, it was easy to find the answer to a question just by knowing one style or grammar rule. But a couple of questions required knowledge of more than one rule. For these questions, I counted them for both concepts. And the winners are†¦ Usage and Mechanics For usage and mechanics questions, the overwhelming winner of the frequency test is correctly forming and joining sentences at 20.5% of the grammar questions. This covers all the concepts involved in understanding what a correct sentence is, including bothfragments and run-ons. This topic also covers correct use of semicolons in joining sentences. Not far behind in second place are questions dealing with correct uses of commas, dashes, and colons. These questions make up 17.7% of the grammar questions. Following in third and fourth places are correctly used non-essential clauses and relative pronouns with 10.2% of the questions, and correct verb tense and form, with 9.6% of the grammar questions. This topic involves, among other things, knowing what tense is necessary, and forming the tenses correctly. So, if you master these four concepts, you will have all the information you need to answer almost 60% of the grammar questions on ACT English. Here is the full breakdown This is my analysis of the most commonly-tested grammar concepts on ACT English, along with brief explanations of what each grammar rule means. #1: Correct Sentence Formation: 20.5% Recognizing fragments Recognizing run-ons, including comma splices Joining sentences correctly Incorrectly used semicolons #2: Use of commas, dashes, and colons: 17.7% No comma between subject and verb No comma before or after preposition When to use commas to separate adjectives No comma between adjective and noun Commas used after introductory words No commas between compound subjects or compound objects No commas around emphatic pronouns Colons used for a list or explanation Dashes used with non-essential clauses, as intro for a list, and with a deliberate pause #3: Correctly formed non-essential clauses andrelative pronouns: 10.2% Non-essential clause must be surrounded by commas Correct use of which vs. that; who vs. which; who vs. whom #4: Verb tense and form: 9.6% Correct and consistent tense usage When to use past tense instead of past participle Past participle needs a helping verb Incorrectly formed past participle Will vs. would When to use gerund and when to use infinitive #5: Misplaced and dangling modifiers and word placement: 9.2% Descriptive phrases must be next to the word they describe. Would a word make more sense elsewhere in the sentence? #6: Apostrophe use: 7.5% Correct formation of plural nouns Correct formation of possessive form of nouns Common contractions and their meanings (such as â€Å"it’s†) #6: Pronoun Use: 7.5% Consistent use of pronouns Pronoun-antecedent agreement (including singular or plural pronouns) Pronoun case Present and clear antecedents #8. Idioms: 5.1% Idiomatic use of prepositions #9: Parallel Structure and Word Pairs: 4.1% Use of matching prepositions Items in a list match Such as neither†¦nor, either†¦or, not only†¦but also, from†¦to, as†¦as #10: Subject-Verb Agreement: 3.8% Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs Subject – non-essential clause – verb construction Subject – prepositional phrase – verb construction Verb before subject #: Adjectives vs. Adverbs: 2.4% Adjectives are used to describe nouns Adverbs are used to describe adjectives, adverbs, and verbs Correct use of the comparative and superlative forms #: Comparison words: 2.4% Correct use of comparison words such as more/less than, less vs. fewer, much vs. many, and that of/those of Rhetorical Strategy These questions are based on making the passages more smooth and logical to read. As in the grammar section, the ACT heavily favors some rules over others. The big winners for Rhetorical Strategy are†¦ Logical transitions. Unsurprisingly, in a section all about making passages more logical, transitions reign supreme. Over 18% of the questions will test your ability to create logical bridges within and between sentences and paragraphs. In second place is adding information with 16.7%. These questions test your ability to see if new information is relevant to the paragraph in question, and also ask students to explain how the paragraphs are changed by the addition of new information. And tied in third with 15.5% each are conciseness and replacing and re-wording information. Similar to the concepts above, replacing information questions ask student to tell if information is relevant to the paragraph in question, and if not, to replace it with different information. Conciseness questions test students’ abilities to see when the author has been unnecessarily wordy. Repetitive words, circular talking, and the passive voice are all put to the test in these questions! Let’s break it down completely #1. Logical Transitions: 18.4% Includes transitions within sentences, between sentences, and between paragraphs Transition words make logical sense for context #2. Adding Information: 16.7% Determining if new information is relevant to paragraph Understanding why new information is relevant #3. Re-wording or Replacing Information: 15.5% Replacing a word or phrase to add a certain emphasis to the passage Replacing irrelevant information with relevant information #3. Conciseness: 15.5% No using repetitive words to describe something General wordiness No passive voice when active voice is also correct and shorter #5. Deleting Information: .7% Is information irrelevant? If so, delete it. What information would be lost if sentence were deleted? #6. Diction: 8.4% Commonly confused words, such as then/than, have/of #7. Sentence Order/Placement and Paragraph Organization: 6.7% Does the placement of a sentence make sense in context? Does one sentence/paragraph logically follow from the last? Does a new paragraph start with a shift in topic? #8. Writer’s Goal: 5.4% Recognizing main ideas in the passage Recognizing specific and general passages #9. Formality: 1.5% Is the phrasing of an answer too casual or formal to match the rest of the sentence? So What Would a Perfect Test Look Like? If you took the ACT English and it broke down exactly according to these statistics, here is what you would expect to see: 8 questions on Forming Correct Sentences 7 questions on Commas, Dashes, and Colons 7 questions on Logical Transitions 6 questions on Adding Information 5 questions on Replacing or Re-wording Information 5 questions on Conciseness 4 questions on Verb Tense and Form 4 questions on Deleting Information 4 questions on Non-essential Clauses and Relative Pronouns 4 questions on Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers and Word Placement 3 questions on Diction 3 questions on Apostrophe Use 3 questions on Pronouns 2 questions on Idioms 2 questions on Parallel Structure and Word Pairs 2 questions on Sentence Order/Paragraph Organization 2 questions on Author Goal/Intent 1 question on Subject-Verb Agreement 1 question on Adjectives vs. Adverbs 1 question on Comparison Words 1 question on Formality †¦.for a total of 75 questions. Of course, it’s unlikely that any test will exactly follow these statistics, so don’t be surprised if you see a few extra (or fewer) questions of a certain type! How Should You Use This Information? Now that you know exactly what you can expect to find on ACT English, use this information to guide your studying. Here’s a study plan that will help you make the most of your study time to give you the best chance of improving your score. Take a diagnostic test. To do this, you should take a real ACT English test, because it’s best to work with realistic questions. You can find official ACT tests online, or you can get them from The Real ACT Prep Guide. After taking the test, score it to see how you've done. For every question that you either got incorrect or had to guess on, make a note of why you got it wrong, and what grammar concept it is testing. Compare your list of grammar mistakes with the â€Å"Perfect Test† list above. Which of your mistakes appears highest on the list? Focus your studying on the concept that is highest on the list. You’re likely to see that kind of question the most, and so mastering that grammar concept will give you the chance to improve your score by a few points. When you feel confident that you have mastered the highest concept on the list, move on to the next one. Keep working your way down the list. As you’re taking these steps, you should also consider what your target ACT score is. For example, if you're just looking to boost a mid-range score (around a 20) a bit higher (a 24), you’ll want to focus on the first 10 – 12 grammar concepts. If you can get these concepts down, you’ll have a great chance of hitting your target score, and you won’t need to worry about many of the less-frequently-tested concepts. On the other hand, if you're aiming for a high or perfect score, you should pay attention to every grammar and rhetorical point on the list. Missing even a few points could hurt your chances of getting the score you want. What’s Next? Now you know exactly what is on ACT English. Use the above links to master each topic. Know the concepts, but unsure of how to attack the questions? Read the best way to approach ACT English passages. Before you get studying, read our top 5 secrets to mastering the ACT English. Not sure if ACT English is for you? Read our comparison of ACT English and SAT Writing to see which is the best fit! Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this English lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. 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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Engineering management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Engineering management - Essay Example Therefore, it can be said that the company or the management of the company in particular would have to take all these aspects into consideration and ascertain whether all the constraints associated with these factors are suitable or not. The product can only be introduced if and only if a majority of these factors are found or are projected to be favorable to the interests of the company. Therefore, a company needs to two things in this regard. The first and the foremost requirement is to conduct a fair assessment of the various constraints and make a forecast. Secondly, the company also needs to come up with an action plan in order to be able to handle any situation such as things not going along as expected or detecting some errors in the forecast etc (Blanchard & Fabrycky, 2004). therefore, all these factors need to be considered before the introduction of the product into the market. Therefore, this is the key consideration that the current paper would attempt to discuss in dept h in line with the concepts of System engineering. The paper would accurately determine the resources that would be required for each phase of the project in addition to determining the implications if any of the calculations went wrong. These p Systems engineering & Analysis The introduction of a new product into the market may be regarded as a project. Generally, such a development would usually comprise the following stages (Blanchard, 2001): Analyze the current products in the market. Drive internal R&D (Research & Development). Design new Product. Ensure that the new product's attributes are competitive enough to survive the market pressures and be able to offer healthy competition to existing and established products. Be able to make the necessary adjustments in all possible respects in order to achieve the above-mentioned objective.These phases are not sequential in order and may vary in their sequence of occurrence. In many cases, these steps have been found to be iterative in nature. The focus of the company that intends to develop and market a new product would be to use the resources to the least possible extent and to be able to use them in an efficient manner. This can be achieved through the concept of system analysis. Under this, the entire development is considered to be a complex system. Thus, system analysis would concentrate on studying every part of the system as well as the relationships between these parts in detail. It must be mentioned that it does not matter whether the system under consideration is an abstract system or a physical system, the former being the one in the present case. Most operations that are conducted under systems analysis are based on the use of certain mathe matical models for generating the appropriate results. These mathematical equations are used for describing the behavior of the system's individual components as well as the effects caused as a result of the interaction of these individual components. The estimation of the various resources along with their quantities can be classified into two main categories, which are discussed in detail: Operations Research. PERT &

Monday, February 10, 2020

Gilgamesh Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Gilgamesh - Essay Example He wants to be immortal so badly that he is willing to do whatever it takes to achieve that state. Then he is met by a human figure whom is not aware of his own potentials as a human. They create a unique friendship and bond. This human figure aids him in realizing his existence as a human and not only as a god. Finally, when losing his new friend, humility begins to set in and the truth of his immorality is faced. Gilgamesh goes on a quest for everlasting life to get his dear friend back. The quest is similar to this thing we call life here on earth! Gilgamesh is happy with his kingly status. He realizes that he is more god than human and possesses supernatural powers. The story begins with Gilgamesh of Uruk. He is known as the greatest king on the earth. He is also known to be the strongest King-god who ever existed. The people who belong to Gilgamesh are everything but happy. They express their concerns in regards to his abusiveness. He abuses his powers and sleeps with women before their husbands do. In order to help solve this situation, the goddess of creation Aruru creates the wild-man Enkidu who is made human by Shamhat, a temple prostitute. Enkidu is known as Gilgamesh’s counter part. â€Å"When he sees her he will draw near to her and his animals, who grew up in his wilderness, will be alien to him.† (Carnahan) Enkidu and Gilgamesh become friends and go off on a journey of the inner soul. The quest that he goes on at first is for his own honor. He wants to go and create a monument for himself. He wants to be elevated to the highest point that he can be. It is not about others at this point. It is only about him. His journey is for his own selfish gain. â€Å"I have not established my name stamped on bricks as my destiny decreed; therefore I will go to the country where the cedars are cut. I will set up my name in the place where the names of famous men are written, and where no man’s name is written yet, I

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Death by Cell Phone Essay Example for Free

Death by Cell Phone Essay The newspapers are replete with scores of vehicular accidents. One reads of how a delivery van careens off the railing of a skyway and lands on top of a passenger bus underneath, crushing several people to death. Another article will be about a cargo truck losing its brakes and running through the red light at a busy intersection and in the process slams broadside into private vehicle. Still another might be of an SUV that crashes against a flimsy construction barrier and lands into a deep excavation †¦. Poor maintenance, lack of defensive driving skills, and carelessness probably account for these accidents. Now, another one can be added to this list of causes: driving while using a cell phone. This is about as commonplace as finding chewing gum under a movie theater seat but certainly, much more dangerous. Availability has determined usage; if it is there – even while driving – use it, is the motto. One wonders how the ‘’civilized’’ world fared without the cell phone. But for some reason or another it did. It was not too long ago that the Spanish galleons took over 3 months of sailing to deliver a letter from Spain to the colonies. And how the roundtrip – the time it took for this same letter to be answered – might have taken anywhere from 6 months to a year. Fast forward to today and the thought of leaving a ringing cell phone unanswered for a few minutes– even while driving – is unthinkable. One can argue that the case against using cell phones while driving is exaggerated; after all there are ‘’hands-free’’ cell phones that allow one to use the cell phone and drive at the same time. We are, after all, multi-taskers, it is argued. While this facility is available, how many do in fact use ‘’hands-free’’ cell phoning. Next time you are on the expressway or freeway, check. While you are at this, also find out how many use the cell phones: those coming at you, those to your left, those to your right, those behind you. Is it 1 in 10? 2 in 10? More? Actuarial scientists will probably advise you to raise your insurance coverage or perhaps even suggest that you start taking another form of transportation (e. g. the subway or some such) even if 1 in 10 of these motorists used the cell phone while driving. It might be argued that the ‘’risk’’ of getting into a vehicular accident while using the cell phone is over-rated? Is it? Consider the statistics: how fast is the average speed on an expressway? How many are using cell phones? How many seconds – or micro-seconds – does it take to initiate an accident? If the answers are that the average speed on an expressway is 60 mph, that at any given time there are more than 1 in 10 using a cell phone and that accidents can occur in the blink of an eye†¦well the answer becomes deathly obvious. An act that has previously been regarded as a remote possibility now assumes the prospect of a distinct probability. All too often, when we read of these things we deal with them by insulating ourselves with anesthetic reassurances that the likelihood is remote, that this are the dire warnings of alarmists, that it cannot happen to us – after all, we are not as ‘’careless’’ as the others. All that can be said in answer to this is that do not let the morgues and cemeteries get crowded with like-minded motorists. It is not too late to stop using the cell phone while driving. Resist answering that phone; it is probably not that important. It can wait. Your life and those of others depend on it

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Free Euthanasia Essays: Problems With Assisted Suicide :: Free Euthanasia Essay

Problems With Assisted Suicide Americans want to know what the report card says, in other words, what are the results of the Netherlands and Oregon experiments with assisted suicide. Let's sift through the data and relevant studies in order to arrive at a conclusion which either affirms or rejects the practice. Although the New England Journal of Medicine article (2/24/00) was the first time a major medical journal in the United States had recounted problems associated with assisted suicide in the Netherlands, there had been prior warnings: In 1995, Dr. Pieter Admiraal, who has practiced euthanasia in the Netherlands for years, warned of the risk of failure associated with assisted suicide. After explaining the preparations that must be made for an assisted suicide death, he wrote: "In spite of these measures, every doctor who decides to assist in suicide must be aware that something can go wrong, with the result being a failure of the suicide. For this reason, one should always be prepared to proceed to active euthanasia. In other words, the doctor should always have at hand thiopental and muscle relaxant" (to administer in the form of a lethal injection). (Admiraal) Â  Barbiturates are the most common substances used for assisted suicide in Oregon and in the Netherlands. Overdoses of barbiturates are known to cause distress: Extreme gasping and muscle spasms can occur. While losing consciousness, a person can vomit and then inhale the vomit. Panic, feelings of terror and assaultive behavior take place from the drug-induced confusion. Other problems can include difficulty in taking the drugs, failure of the drugs to induce unconsciousness and a number of days elapsing before death occurs. (NEJM) Dr. Katrina Hedberg, a co-author of Oregon's two official reports on assisted suicide, denies that there have been complications in assisted suicide deaths in Oregon. "Those things have not materialized," she stated. (Oregonian) But news reports from Oregon indicate otherwise: * A man experienced difficulty during his assisted suicide death and his brother-in-law had to help him die. "It doesn't go smoothly for everyone," the person who helped explained. "It would not have worked without help." [Oregonian, 1/17/99 and 3/11/99] * In another case, after a man took the drugs intended to induce death, his physical symptoms were so disturbing that his wife called 911. He was taken from his home to a hospital where he was revived.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Beauty therapy

Alexandrine – absorbed by melanin, Is (near Infrared) Is most effective when used on pale skin and Isn't safe to use on darker skin. It is Mann visible light wave length. It has a pulsed dried array of 810 NM for pale to medium skin types. Alexandrine has an observed color change from green to red.Alexandrine results from small scale replacement of a aluminum by chromium Ions In the crystal structure, which causes Intense absorption of the light over a narrow range of wave lengths in the yellow region of the spectrum' (Wisped) [http://en. M. Wisped. Org/wick/Chrysler/alexandrine] Alexandrine is a trochaic gem, which exhibits green, red, and orangey-yellow colors. Ruby- it Is deeper and Is 694. NM In visible wavelength and absorbed by melanin, and isn't used for hair removal any longer as It Is only safe to use on clients with very pale skin. Ruby laser is a solid laser.Its synthetic medium is ruby crystal. Ruby lasers use short pulses of red light. Diode – is a semicond uctor laser that is electronically pumped. They have the largest wave length selection, emits Mann near Infrared wavelength OCW and Is absorbed by melanin. Laser diodes are continuously emitting diodes from infrared to red, green or blue. Pulsed laser diodes or Plus have wavelengths of Mann and annum. Mann are single emitters. annum are eye safe. A diode is a semi conductive metal which allows energy to travel In one direction. An : Wag ? a crystal, and the most common form of laser.They typically emit a light wave length of annum in the infrared. They can operate in continuous or pulsed mode. These lasers can be used to treat numerous medical conditions such as ophthalmology, cataracts surgery, acute angle-closure glaucoma, benign or malignant lesions, skin cancers, as well as hair removal or vascular defects. Wag lasers have been used in manufacturing such as engraving and etching. PL – or intense pulsed light, shoots 2 or 3 pulses at the same target with a specific delay b etween the pulses. The spot size or width of the laser beam affects treatment.Theoretically, the width of the Ideal beam Is about 4 times as wide as the target Is deep' (Wisped). PL use effluence or energy which is measured in joules. Epidermal cooling with the PL means that higher fluencies can be used and treatment is less painful. Light Heat Energy (broadband spectrum systems) – light is converted into heat which targets various chromospheres In the skin, such as hemoglobin, melanin, and water. ‘Definition – Intense pulsed light describes the use of Intense pulses of non-coherent light distributed over a range of wave lengths from Mann to annum for removal of hair and other purposed.A related, but distinct technique is hair removal; the primary deference Is that laser treatments uses generated coherent ND monochromatic light' (Wisped). Question 2 – Investigate the various methods of skin cooling in relation to laser and I OFF Cooling gels are water base d and are applied to the skin pre-treatment and where necessary after treatment. The gel works by evaporation. Ice packs may be applied to the area pre and post treatment, but not directly to the skin as ice burns can occur, Wrap the ice pack in a thin disposable covering like bed roll.Cryogenic sprays or cold air is generated and directed to the area of treatment. Both are pre and post treatment. Cryogenic cooling is built into some systems. Simultaneous contact cooling is available on systems that operate through a scanner. It facilitates pre and post treatment cooling, and simultaneous cooling with lasing. This method speeds up treatment time by a series of laser pulses emitting in quick succession in a controlled area. Question 3 – describe the recommended time intervals between treatments for each are and give reasons for this.How do you evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Investigate reasons for poor hair removal results. Describe the recommended time intervals between treatments for skin rejuvenation and give reasons for this. It is necessary that subsequent treatments are given at regular intervals. The hair needs to be at the engage stage of growth for optimum results to be achieved. Time intervals are normally as follows: Area Eyebrows Upper lip Chin Armpit Legs Arms Bikini Retirement in weeks 5-7 3-5 6-8 6-12 8-10 Engage is the active growth state of the hair cycle.The follicle has reformed, the hair bulb is developing surrounding the dermal papilla and new hair forms growing from the matrix in the bulb. ‘Because of the cyclical nature of hair growth the follicles are always at different stages of their own growth cycle. When hair is removed, therefore, the hair will not grow back at the same time. For this reason, waxing or threading can appear to reduce the quantity of hair growth. ‘ (the Foundations Beauty Therapy 2 by Lorraine Mormon). Evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment can be accessed through photographs.I t is good practice to take photographs before and after each treatment. Treatment records keeping notes on progress and observations. Client feedback is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment. Clients can provide information such as how often they are shaving, if the hair is feeling finer, hinging out or if the hair is no longer growing back. Some of the reasons for poor hair removal results could be that the client has in increased amount of melanin in the skin causing lower energy effluence or Joule setting.The hair growth cycle may not be at the engage stage meaning that the hair is not active. It could be at the telling or cottage stage. The client may have topical hair removal between treatments. Adapted for each individual client. Clients may have tattoos. We do not work over tattoos as the pigment of ink may heat up and cause a burn or reduce in color or quality. We can use a white pencil or void the area. Clients skin types and hair color effect how each treatment is adapted, as the lighter the skin the lower the melanin content and the darker the hair is the higher the melanin content.Therefore, the best results are on a light skin with a dark hair. We can increase or decrease the pulse effluence and Joules to suit the clients skin type and hair color. Question 5 – Give a personal reflection on how you have felt from the start of using laser/lap to how you feel on going out into the industry. You can include how you feel you have developed and how it will affect you in the future. When I first started working with lasers all of the information was quite scary, it wasn't until I started to break down every piece of information that I began to understand how and why PL and lasers work.I have been working out in the industry with PL and used various pieces of PL machinery with companies such as Crystal Medical, Linton, Pulsar and Skin First. I have found some equipment to be more effective than others. The most effective machi ne I have found to be in the Linton Illuminate Advanced which is currently used by the NASH. Using a piece of equipment that is being used by the NASH instill confidence in me, and also in my clients because if the NASH are using such a piece of equipment, in my mind it would be deemed to be medically compliant, tested, reliable and give effective results.In the future I would like to see a more efficient method of hair removal or perhaps a machine that can cover a large area in each treatment. I would also like to see the regulations on who can use PL or laser machines tightened as currently anyone can have independent training via the companies who supply the machines over a couple of days. I believe this is not enough knowledge or experience to be let loose on members of the public. Beauty Therapy As each and every one of us is different, so too is our skin. The various combinations are normal, dry, oily, combination, and sensitive and aged skin. In normal skin, the oil glands produce moderate sebum, whereas dry skin is caused by under or inactive glands that do not produce enough sebum to keep the skin naturally lubricated. Oily skin is due to too much sebum, resulting in skin that has a greasy texture and appears shiny. Combination skin is the most common as most people have dry parts & oily parts; known as the T-Zone.The sensitive skin is felt to be more of a skin condition rather than a skin type as it refers to the delicacy of the skin rather than its type as it is a reaction to certain cosmetics and other matierals. (Facial Skin Types, 2003-2008) 2. When treating skin it is very important to analyse what the skin type is beforehand. In determining the best course of action to take, clinical research has shown that genetics, hair color, eye color, ethnicity and true skin color all play into the skin’s response to injury, including some treatments such as dermabrasion and microdermabrasion, laser resurfacing and chemical peels.The aesthetician is able to determine which clients may have a greater or lesser risk of complications, including scars or pigmentation problems from treatments by typing their skin. (Hill, 2007) 3. Along with skin types, there are a few divisions and subdivisions that can affect the skin; acne, psoriasis, eczema, and rosacea. All of which can be partially treated but care has to be taken when using cosmetics and facial creams. 4. DSHAPES (D = Vitamin D), (S= Secretion), (P= Protection), (S= Storage), (E= Excretion), (H= Heat) 5. Skin conditions like, acne and rosacea are very different from each other. Acne is causedby an inflammation of the skin resulting in eruptions on the surface, i. e. whiteheads, blackheads, pimples, even cysts. The acne is classified in three categories; comedonal, inflammatory and nodulocystic. Acne vulgaris has three factors in common, too much facial oil, hormones and bacteria. Poor hygiene is not the cause of acne. (Luxuries, 2003-2008) The skin condition, rosacea is caused by varying degrees of redness due to enlargement and dilation of blood vessels beneath the skins surface. (Rosacea Care – Symptoms and Treatment, 2003-2008). Unlike acne vulgaris, the skin does not erupt when suffering from rosacea.6. The shedding of the outer layer of skin, known as desquamation has its benefits, like exfloiation it rids the skin of flaky, old skin, making way for fresh new cells to make new skin. Certain treatments can accelerate this process, a chemical peel is one of them. 7. Facial steaming is an excellent method of caring for your skin. As it only involves placing your face into the steam from water, there is the added bonus of it being natural. Opening and cleansing the pores, skin will feel softer and cleaner with less visible pores. 8. Collagen and elastin are both fi bres found in our dermis, the deeper layer of skin.They are both proteins but collagen and elastin differ significantly in their content of basic amino acids. (Fluorescence microscopic distinction between elastin and collagen , 2004) 9. Using a magnifying lamp is useful as it enables a higher level of sight than the naked eye and clearly shows any imperfection, making it a simple task when analysing skin. (D'Angelo, 2002) 10. The Wood lamp is similar to a magnifying lamp, only with a Wood lamp you are able to see even deeper into the skin. 11. Erythema is a name applied to redness of the skin produced by congestion of thecapillaries. Oedma is the pressure of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body. Papule is a small, superficial elevation of the skin. A Macule is a spot. A Pustule is an elevation of the cuticle containing pus. A Comedone is a plug of sebum. A Milia is a small subepidermal cyst which is usually multiple, referred to as milium. Eczema is a thickening and scaling of the skin. (Education, 1997-2007). 12. Moisturising face masks will improve the skins moisture levels. The mask works like a moisturiser but is more intense and quick.A mud or clay face mask is good for oily skins as it absorbs excess impurities and grease. A gel face mask is particularly good if you have irritated skin or have suffered too much heat from the sun. (Facial Masks). 13. Using different ingredients in setting masks have differing qualities; Kaolin is used for acne prone and oily skin because of its absorbant properties. Fullers Earth is similar to Kaolin but also has deep cleansing properties. Rose Water is more suited to dry and sensitive skin because of its mild toning effects and Calamine is useful for ageing or sensitive skin because it has a cooling, soothing effect.(Oily and Acne Prone Skin, 2007) 14. If your face has never shown an oily shine and you've never suffered from pimples or acne, chances are you were born with norma l to dry skin. If that's the case, you'll want to keep it sufficiently moisturized and use skin-care products especially formulated for dry skin. If on the other hand your pores are visible, especially on your chin, nose and between your eyebrows, you're prone to breakouts and clogged pore, but your skin looks scaly and dry in places, you're dehydrated. (New Skin Oasis, 2005 & 2006) 15. Hyperhidrosis is excessive perspiring.Anhidrosis is an absence of sweat. Bromhidros is foul smelling perspiration (body odour). (Education, 1997-2007) 16. Two disorders of the sebaceous glands are milia (whiteheads) and comedone (blackheads). 17. An eccrine gland is a tubular gland that occurs in the skin on almost all parts of the skin. An apocrine gland is droplet of sweat. (Education, 1997-2007) 18. Client consultation is important because of all the different skin types and skin conditions. Analysing a clients skin before treatment of any type will ensure the correct products or treatments are us ed. 19.Acid mantle is the fine film with a slightly acidic pH level that protects the skin from the sun. (Gil Yosipovitch, 2003). 20. Skin Cancer, Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer. 21. Eczema – itchy and flaky. Dermatitis – itchy, blotchy and flaky. Psoriasis – thickening of skin, flaky, itchy, usually only affects the joints and isolated areas. Acne – eruptions underneath the skins surface. Rosacea – reddening of the skin, blotchiness. 22. The meaning of allergy is to be allergic to something. Your body or skin reacts letting you know that what you have come into contact with disagrees with you. 23.Albinism – a total lack of melanin in the skin. Melasma – dark brown, symmetric patches of pigment on the face. Vitiligo – smooth white patches on skin. Port wine stain – a flat, pink, red or purple birth mark. Strawberry hemangiomas – a slightly raised, red birthmark. (Dermatology , 2008) 24. No diagrams, impossible to do. D'Angelo, J. (2002). Miladys Standard Comprehensive Training for Estheticians. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from http://books. google. co. uk/books? id=jZACPaVxE4gC&pg=PA117&lpg=PA117&dq=why+is+a+magnifying+lamp+important+in+skin+care&source=web&ots=VQlWnsTbgL&sig=PIguYdUGsVIv0H34rBkcrMKFDr4&hl=enDermatology . (2008, January). Retrieved March 16, 2008, from University of Maryland Medical Center: http://www. umm. edu/dermatology-info/pigment. htm Education, C. f. (1997-2007). Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Online Medical Dictionary: http://cancerweb. ncl. ac. uk/cgi-bin/omd? erythema Facial Masks. (n. d. ). Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Skin Care Tips Online: http://www. skin-care-tips-online. com/Facial-Masks. html Facial Skin Types. (2003-2008). Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Herbal Luxuries: http://www. herballuxuries. com/skin_types. htm Fluorescence microscopic distinction between elastin and collagen .(2004, December 1). Retrieved March 16, 2008, from SpringerLink: http://www. sp ringerlink. com/content/kr21x1633687171q/ Gil Yosipovitch, M. a. (2003). The Importance of Skin pH. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from CWI Medical: http://www. cwimedical. com/incontinence-skin-ph. html Hill, P. (2007, May Wednesday). Professional Aesthetics Series: The Importance of Skin Typing Before Treatment. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Pamela Hill Institute: http://pamelahillinstitute. com/95/professional-aesthetics-series-the-importance-of-skin-typing-before-treatment/ Luxuries, H. (2003-2008).Acne Causes and Treatments. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Herbal Luxuries: http://www. herballuxuries. com/acne. htm New Skin Oasis. (2005 & 2006). Retrieved March 16, 2008, from New Skin Oasis: http://www. newskinoasis. com/skin_care_tips. asp? skin_care_tip=14 Oily and Acne Prone Skin. (2007). Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Preventacne. com: http://www. preeventacne. com/mall/Preeventacne/Oily%20and%20acne-prone%20skin. htm Rosacea Care – Symptoms and Treatment. (2003-2008). Ret rieved March 16, 2008, from Herbal Luxuries: http://www. herballuxuries. com/rosacea. htm

Monday, January 6, 2020

An Investigation Into Zem Cos Performance Essay - 2850 Words

Zen Cos management team requested this report to accurately identify the cause the companys recent poor performance in the market that has resulted in a fall in productivity close to 10pc. The author was also requested to ascertain the correct formula in which would ameliorate job satisfaction within the organisation. The author was to establish the likely causes of Zen Cos recent poor performance relating to falling productivity figures, together with valid strategies in which would reduce staff turnover and absenteeism considerably. In conclusion the author was to discover with the aid of ample evidence whether the role of organisational behaviour theory in the management of employee resources in a valid one. A 3,000-word†¦show more content†¦They are also referred to as motivators. These motivators increased the job satisfaction of the employee and further increased their efficiency. These factors prevent job dissatisfaction. These did not make the employees happy (or have job satisfaction): it just removed the unhappiness out of working. They are also referred to as hygiene factors. Such hygiene factors, if not satisfied, had an effect of reduced employee efficiency. Herzberg believed that all factors fell into one of these categories and therefore had separate consequences. According to his theory, for a worker to be happy and therefore productive, environmental factors must not cause discomfort. Herzberg believed that the workers get motivated through feeling responsible for and connected to their work. Managers can help the employees connect to their work by giving them more authority over the job, as well as offering direct and individual feedback. By implementing such a theory staff receive a sense for achievement, recognition of their effort, the nature of the work itself, and the desire for responsibility are all strong factors for motivation, and it can be argued that this component is currently lacking in Zen Cos work-force. It must be noted that these factors encouraging motivation (job satisfaction) have little connection with money and are more associated with personal development and achievement. Hygiene